School of Information and Library Science
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
INLS 465 – Understanding Information Technology for Managing Digital Collections
[Last Updated: 2010-03-25]
Meeting Time: Monday, 3:15-5:45
Location: Manning 307
Instructor: Cal Lee
Office: 212 Manning
E-Mail: callee [at] ils [dot] unc [dot] edu
Office Hours: Monday, 1:00-2:00, or by appointment
Course Web Site: http://blackboard.unc.edu/
The fundamental motivation for this course is that anyone responsible for digital collections will have to understand and be conversant in various aspects of the associated information technologies, in order to evaluate the work of developers, delegate tasks, write appropriate requests for proposals (RFPs), and establish reasonable management and preservation policies.
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
Special Needs: If you feel that you may need an accommodation for a disability or have any other special need, please make an appointment to discuss this with me. I will best be able to address special circumstances if I know about them early in the semester. My office hours and contact information are listed at the beginning of this syllabus.
It is very important that you both attribute your sources and avoid excessive use of quotes (see separate handout called "In Your Own Words"). Be aware of the University of North Carolina policy on plagiarism. Your written work must be original. Ask if you have any doubts about what this means.
All cases of plagiarism (unattributed quotation or paraphrasing) of anyone else's work, whether from someone else's answers to homework or from published materials, will be officially reported and dealt with according to UNC policies (Instrument of Student Judicial Governance, Section II.B.1. and III.D.2, http://instrument.unc.edu).
The most important measures of your performance in this and all other classes at SILS will be your ability to engage in challenging materials with your fellow students; your reputation for insights and professionalism among your peers and with your instructor; your integration of course material with the other things you are learning both inside and outside the classroom; and your ability to apply what you’ve learned in your future career. However, the conventions of academia dictate that I also assign labels (called grades) to your work on assignments and for the course as a whole.
Based on UNC Registrar Policy for graduate-level courses (http://regweb.unc.edu/resources/rpm24.php), both assignment and semester grades will be H, P, L or F. Few students will obtain an "H," which signifies an exceptionally high level of performance (higher than an "A" in an A-F systems). The following is a more detailed breakdown:
|H||Superior work: complete command of subject, unusual depth, great creativity or originality||P+||Above average performance: solid work somewhat beyond what was required and good command of the material||P||Satisfactory performance that meets course requirements (expected to be the median grade of all students in the course)||P-||Acceptable work in need of improvement||L||Unacceptable graduate performance: substandard in significant ways||F||Performance that is seriously deficient and unworthy of graduate credit|
According to UNC Registrar Policy, undergraduate grades are based on the following definitions:
Mastery of course content at the highest level of attainment that can reasonably be expected of students at a given stage of development. The A grade states clearly that the students have shown such outstanding promise in the aspect of the discipline under study that he/she may be strongly encouraged to continue.
Strong performance demonstrating a high level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The B grade states that the student has shown solid promise in the aspect of the discipline under study.
A totally acceptable performance demonstrating an adequate level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The C grade states that, while not yet showing unusual promise, the student may continue to study in the discipline with reasonable hope of intellectual development.
A marginal performance in the required exercises demonstrating a minimal passing level of attainment. A student has given no evidence of prospective growth in the discipline; an accumulation of D grades should be taken to mean that the student would be well advised not to continue in the academic field.
For whatever reason, an unacceptable performance. The F grade indicates that the student's performance in the required exercises has revealed almost no understanding of the course content. A grade of F should warrant an advisor's questioning whether the student may suitably register for further study in the discipline before remedial work is undertaken.
Absent from final examination, but could have passed if exam taken. This is a temporary grade that converts to an F* after the last day of class for the next regular semester unless the student makes up the exam.
Failed and absent from exam. The FA grade is given when the undergraduate student did not attend the exam, and could not pass the course regardless of performance on the exam. This would be appropriate for a student that never attended the course or has excessive absences in the course, as well as missing the exam.
Work incomplete. This is a temporary grade that converts to F* at the end of eight weeks into the next semester unless the student makes up the incomplete work.
Withdrew passing. Entered when a student drops after the six-week drop period.
The texts for the course are available for purchase from the UNC Student Stores in the Daniels Building (two buildings south of Manning).
SILS Reserves: Copies of the following books are available from the SILS Library on the first floor of Manning Hall (behind the SILS Library help desk):
For the weekly readings, the following labels indicate where specific course readings can be located:
B = Book for purchase
R = Reserves at SILS Library in Manning Hall
C = Course site on Blackboard (https://blackboard.unc.edu/), where copies of some readings are available (under Course Documents > Readings)
O = Online through UNC license. NOTE: Accessing these materials can require you either to use a computer with a UNC IP address or visit the associated sites through a UNC proxy server. See: Off-Campus Access, http://proxy.lib.unc.edu/setupinfo.html
W = Publicly accessible Web
Tools to Support Curation of Digital Collections - This class is not focused on specific applications. However, it is often helpful to know what software is available to support various activities that relate to the topics of the course. For a directory of tools, organized around a set of functions identified in the DigCCurr (Digital Curation Curriculum) Project, see: http://www.ils.unc.edu/callee/temp-dc-tools/digital-curation-tools.htm
Discussion of the structure of the class, the topics we'll cover, and why the topics are important to understand when managing digital collections.
NO CLASS SESSION (Martin Luther King, Jr. Day).
W, R - Lessig, Lawrence. Code: Version 2.0. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2006. http://codev2.cc/ [Read: Code is Law (1-9), Regulating Code (61-80)]
C - Tenner, Edward. "Ever Since Frankenstein." In Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, 3-32. New York, NY: Knopf, 1996.
C - Winner, Langdon. "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" Daedalus 109, no. 1 (1980): 121-36.
B - Campbell-Kelly, Martin, and William Aspray. Computer: A History of the Information Machine. Second ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004. [Read the whole book]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Building Blocks and System Architecture (113-117)]
B - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2007. [11-15 (Can you find all the errors on p.13?), 37-45, 66-71, 108-111]
O - Elerath, Jon. "Hard-Disk Drives: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Communications of the ACM 52, no. 6 (2009): 38-45. http://doi.acm.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1145/1516046.1516059
R - Hillis, W. Daniel. The Pattern on the Stone: The Simple Ideas That Make Computers Work. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 1998. [Nuts and Bolts (1-19); Universal Building Blocks (21-38)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [125-127]
C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Bit by Bit by Bit (69-85); Bytes and Hex (180-189)]
W - Sawyer, Donald. “Persistent Preservation Challenge: Experience and Recommendations.” Presented at DigCCurr 2009: Digital Curation Practice, Promise and Prospects, Chapel Hill, NC, April 1-3, 2009. http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/5d-sawyer.pdf
B - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2007. [How Tablet PCs Set You Free (16-17); Data Storage (155-193); How Digital Cameras Capture Light (254-255)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [On data types (167-169)]
W - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. Washington, DC: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdf [Specifically: Information Definition (p.2-3 to 2-5); Logical Model for Archival Information up to section 18.104.22.168.2 (p.4-19 to 4-27)] - MAYBE UPDATED VERSION, IF AVAILABLE IN TIME.
W - Rothenberg, Jeff. "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Information." Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999. http://www.clir.org/pubs/archives/ensuring.pdf [See specifically: "Old bit streams never die—they just become unreadable" and "It’s all in the program" (2-11)]
B - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2007. [How Tablet PCs Read Your Handwriting (18-19); How Software Applications Do Your Work (119-143); How Digital Sound Tricks Your Ear (272-273); How a Digital Camera Squeezes Video Down to Size (282-283); How Prime Numbers Protect Prime Secrets (396-397); How Printers Work (406-409)]
C - Haralambous, Yannis, and P. Scott Horne. Fonts & Encodings. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, 2007. [Introduction (1-17); Before Unicode (27-52 (skimming 29-50 to get an idea of the various types of encoding)); Characters, glyphs, bytes: An introduction to Unicode (53-93 (skimming 62-93 to get an idea of the complexity and scope of Unicode)); Properties of Unicode characters (95-125 (skim to become familiar with categories of character properties)); Fonts and Web Pages (315-366)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Information Content (108-111); Data Sharing (415-423)]
B - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2007. [How Word Processors Format Text (119-145); How Optical Character Recognition Works (218-219)]
W - Campbell, Douglas. "Identifying the Identifiers." Paper presented at the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Singapore, August 27-31, 2007. http://www.dcmipubs.org/ojs/index.php/pubs/article/viewFile/34/16W - Hilse, Hans-Werner, and Jochen Kothe. Implementing Persistent Identifiers: Overview of Concepts, Guidelines and Recommendations. London: Consortium of European Research Libraries, 2006. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:gbv:7-isbn-90-6984-508-3-8 [Pay particular attention to the following pages: 1-7, 40-48]
W - Lyons, Susan. "Persistent Identification of Electronic Documents and the Future of Footnotes." Law Library Journal 97, no. 4 (2005): 681-94. http://www.aallnet.org/products/pub_llj_v97n04/2005-42.pdf
Related Video of Possible Interest: Van de Sompel, Herbert, Robert Sanderson, and Michael Nelson. "Memento: Time Travel for the Web." Coalition for Networked Information Fall 2009 Membership Meeting, December 14-15, 2009, Washington, DC. http://vimeo.com/8365394 [See especially the first 15 minutes, in which Van de Sompel articulates the resource referencing problems being addressed by Memento.]
O, R- Carrier, Brian. "File System Analysis." In File System Forensic Analysis, 173-210. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/0321268172/ch08
W, R - Farmer, Dan, and Wietse Venema. "File System Basics." In Forensic Discovery. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://www.porcupine.org/forensics/forensic-discovery/chapter3.html
C, R - Garrido, José M., and Richard Schlesinger. Principles of Modern Operating Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. [Basic Concepts of Operating Systems (1-18); File Management (193-217)]
C, R - Garrido, José M., and Richard Schlesinger. Principles of Modern Operating Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. [The I/O System (219-244)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Networked Computing Infrastructure and The Internet (118-131); Two Host Architectures and Three-Tier Client-Server Architecture (140-148); Communication Services (345-368); Network Architecture and Protocols (517-538)] [345-368 is in a separate file through Blackboard, rather than the main book excerpt document]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2008. [How Curcuits Juggle Data (21-29); Input/Output Devices (204-217, 230-241); How the Internet Works (315-321, 333-337, 339-341, 344-345, 348-349, 361-365, 368-373, 384-385)]
R - Hillis, Daniel. Pattern on the Stone. Science Masters. Perseus, 1999. [Programming, 39-59]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Programming an Application (325-344)]
R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Languages High and Low (349-362)]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 9th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2008. [How Programming Languages Work (95-103); Viruses (386-391)]
C, O, R - Messerschmitt, David G. and Clemens Szyperski. Software Ecosystem: Understanding an Indispensable Technology and Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005. [Software Supply Industry (171-197); Software Creation Industry (200-265)] http://www.netlibrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=100089
O, R - Shapiro, Carl, and Hal Varian. "Recognizing Lock-In." In Information Rules, 103-134. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999. http://www.netlibrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=35060
C, R - Axelrod, Robert, and Michael D. Cohen. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1999. [Introduction (1-31); Conclusion (152-160)]
W - Lee, Cal. "Never Optimize: Building & Managing a Robust Cyberinfrastructure." History and Theory of Infrastructure: Distilling Lessons for New Scientific Cyberinfrastructures, Ann Arbor, MI, September 28 - October 1, 2006. http://icd.si.umich.edu/%7Ecknobel/?q=node/40" title="http://icd.si.umich.edu/~cknobel/?q=node/40
C, O, R - Baldwin, Carliss Y., and Kim B. Clark. "What is Modularity?" Design Rules. Vol. 1: The Power of Modularity, 63-92. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. http://site.ebrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/lib/uncch/Top?id=2001005
C - Cargill, Carl F. "A History of Standards" and "A User Perspective on Technical Standardization." In Open Systems Standardization: A Business Approach, 14-25, 89-96. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Egyedi, Tineke. "Infrastructure Flexibility Created by Standardized Gateways: The Cases of XML and the ISO Container." Knowledge,Technology & Policy 14, no. 3 (2001): 41-54.
B,R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Modularity and Layering (157-189); Standardization (215-223); Application Architecture (293-324)] [215-223 and 293-324 not in main exerpt file in Blackboard]
C - Moore, Reagan W. "Building Preservation Environments with Data Grid Technology." American Archivist 69, no. 1 (2006): 139-58.
C - Seacord, Robert, Daniel Plakosh, and Grace Lewis. "The Legacy Crisis," "Understanding the Legacy System," and "Recommendations." Modernizing Legacy Systems: Software Technologies, Engineering Processes and Business Practices, 1-17, 57-67, 303-308. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley, 2003.
O - Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. http://webcat.lib.unc.edu/record=b4005639
W - Kling, Rob. "What Is Social Informatics and Why Does It Matter?" D-Lib Magazine 5, no. 1 (1999). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html
C - Sproull, Lee S., and Sara Kiesler. "Beyond Efficiency." and "A Two-Level Perspective on Technology." In Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization, 1-17 and 19-35. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.
O - Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. http://webcat.lib.unc.edu/record=b4005077
W - Besser, Howard. "Digital Longevity." In Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access, edited by Maxine K. Sitts. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2000. http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/Papers/sfs-longevity.html
Brown, Adrian. "Preservation." In Archiving Websites: A Practical Guide for Information Management Professionals, 82-126. London: Facet, 2006.
W - Computer History Museum. "Timeline of Computer History." http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/
W - Digital Preservation and Technology Timeline. Cornell University Library. http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/timeline/index.html
W - Kay, Russell. "35 Technologies that shaped the industry." Computerworld. September 30, 2002. http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/story/0,10801,74632,00.html
W- McDonough, Jerome. "Structural Metadata and the Social Limitation of Interoperability: A Sociotechnical View of XML and Digital Library Standards Development." Paper presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference, August 12-15, 2008. http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol1/html/McDonough01/BalisageVol1-McDonough01.html
W - Moore, Reagan. "Towards a Theory of Digital Preservation." International Journal of Digital Curation 1, No. 3 (2008). http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/viewFile/63/42
C - Smith, Richard E. "A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture." Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 4 (1989): 277-303.
R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Milestones in Computer Architecture, 13-26]
O - Tzitzikas, Yannis. "Dependency Management for the Preservation of Digital Information." In Database and Expert Systems Applications, 582-92. Berlin: Springer, 2007.
R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Chapter 2 (Computer Systems Organization): 51-134]
O - Bairavasundaram, Lakshmi N., Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau, Garth R. Goodson, and Bianca Schroeder. "An Analysis of Data Corruption in the Storage Stack." ACM Transactions on Storage 4, no. 3 (2008). http://doi.acm.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1145/1416944.1416947
O - Balkestein, Marjan, and Heiko Tjalsma. "The ADA Approach: Retro-Archiving Data in an Academic Environment." Archival Science 7, no. 1 (2007): 89-105.
W - Brezinski, Dominique, and Tom Killalea. "Guidelines for Evidence Collection and Archiving." Request for Comments 3227. 2002. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3227.txt
W - Brown, Adrian. “Selecting Storage Media for Long-Term Preservation.” London: The National Archives. June 19, 2003. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/selecting_storage_media.pdf
W - Byers, Fred R. "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs: A Guide for Librarians and Archivists." Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub121abst.html
O - Carrier, Brian. "Computer Foundations." In File System Forensic Analysis, 17-45. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/0321268172/ch02 [See also "Hard Disk Data Acquisition" (47-66).]
Cohen, Tyler, and Amber Schroader. Alternate Data Storage Forensics. Burlington, MA: Syngress, 2007. [Includes extraction of data from handheld devices, e-mail, routers, CD, DVD and MP3 files]
Crowley, Paul, and Dave Kleiman. CD and DVD Forensics. Rockland, MA: Syngress, 2007.
W - “Data Recovery.” Microsoft Help and Support. Jully 9, 2008. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/835840/EN-GB/
W - del Pozo, Nicholas, Douglas Elford, and David Pearson. “Mediapedia: Managing the Identification of Media Carriers.” In Proceedings of DigCCurr2009: Digital Curation: Practice, Promise, and Prospects, edited by Helen R. Tibbo, Carolyn Hank, Christopher A. Lee, and Rachael Clemens, 76-78. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, School of Information and Library Science, 2009. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/proceedings-of-digccurr2009-digital-curation-practice-promise-and-prospects/4994819 [See also the conference demo presentation: http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/3d-pearson.pdf]
C - Dobrustina, Svetlana A., Svetlana I. Ganicheva, Irina G. Tikhonova, Tatiana D. Velikova, and Pavel E. Zavalishin. "Influence of the External Factors on the Lifetime of Information Recorded on DVD±R." Restaurator 28 (2008): 29-43.
C - Dollar, Charles M. "Appendix 5 – Media Life Expectancy Disposition Charts." In Authentic Electronic Records: Strategies for Long-Term Access, 215-222. Chicago, IL: Cohasset Associates, 1999.
W - Elford, Douglas, Nicholas Del Pozo, Snezana Mihajlovic, David Pearson, Gerard Clifton, and Colin Webb. "Media Matters: Developing Processes for Preserving Digital Objects on Physical Carriers at the National Library of Australia." Paper presented at the 74th IFLA General Conference and Council, Québec, Canada, August 10-14, 2008. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/084-Webb-en.pdf
W - Farley, Jonathan. "An Introduction to New Media." Public Record Office, 1999. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=B4BF35F8F75DF38121B1C3120F0B6196?doi=10.1.1.39.6616&rep=rep1&type=pdf
W - Farmer, Dan, and Wietse Venema. "Persistence of deleted file information." In Forensic Discovery. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://www.porcupine.org/forensics/forensic-discovery/chapter7.html
W - Garfinkel, Simson L., and Abhi Shelat. "Remembrance of Data Passed: A Study of Disk Sanitization Practices." IEEE Security and Privacy 1 (2003): 17-27. http://www.computer.org/portal/cms_docs_security/security/v1n1/garfinkel.pdf
Horowitz, Paul, and Winfield Hill. The Art of Electronics. 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989. [See especially Digital Electronics (471-564); Microcomputers (673-742); Microprocessors (743-826)]
C - Iraci, Joe. "The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats." Restaurator 26, no. 2 (2005): 134-50.
W - John, Jeremy Leighton. "Adapting Existing Technologies for Digitally Archiving Personal Lives: Digital Forensics, Ancestral Computing, and Evolutionary Perspectives and Tools." Paper presented at iPRES 2008: The Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, UK, September 29-30, 2008. http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/presentations_day1/09_John.pdf
R - Jones, Keith J., Richard Bejtlich, and Curtis W. Rose. Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006. [See especially: "Acquiring a Forensic Duplication" (161-204), "Common Forensic Analysis Techniques" (207-246), "Forensic Duplication and Analysis of Personal Digital Assistants" (515-570), “Forensic Duplication of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices” (571-576), "Forensic Analysis of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices" (577-594).]
Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008. [See especially 50-53, 58-67, 89-96]
W - Kuphaldt, Tony. R. "Principles of Digital Computing." Lessons In Electric Circuits. Volume 4. http://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/Digital/DIGI_16.html
W - Pharr, Matt, and Greg Humphreys. "Sampling and Reconstruction." In Physically Based Rendering: From Theory to Implementation, 279-367. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. http://graphics.stanford.edu/~mmp/chapters/pbrt_chapter7.pdf
W - Puglia, Steve. “Creating Permanent and Durable Information: Physical Media and Storage Standards.” CRM: Cultural Resource Management 22, no. 2 (1999): 25-27. http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/22-2/22-02-10.pdf
W - Rosenthal, David S.H. "Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?" Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects (iPRES), London, UK, September 29-30, 2008. http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/presentations_day2/43_Rosenthal.pdf
W - Ross, Seamus, and Ann Gow. "Digital Archaeology: Rescuing Neglected and Damaged Data Resources." London: British Library, 1999. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/papers/supporting/pdf/p2.pdf
W - Schmid, Patrick, and Achim Roos. "RAID Recovery: The Data Knight Kroll Ontrack to the Rescue!" February 14, 2007. http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/02/14/raid_recovery/
W - Schroeder, Bianca, and Garth A. Gibson. "Disk Failures in the Real World: What Does an MTTF of 1,000,000 Hours Mean to You?" Paper presented at the 5th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies 2007. http://www.usenix.org/events/fast07/tech/schroeder/schroeder_html/index.html
W - Smorul, Mike, Joseph JaJa, Fritz McCall, Susan Fitch Brown, Reagan Moore, Richard Marciano, Sheau-Yen Chen, Rick Lopez, and Robert Chadduck. "Recovery of a Digital Image Collection through the SDSC/UMD/NARA Prototype Persistent Archive." UMIACS Technical Report. 2003. https://wiki.umiacs.umd.edu/adapt/images/a/ab/UMIACS-TR-2003-105.pdf
W - Smorul, Michael, Sangchul Song, and Joseph JaJa . “An Implementation of the Audit Control Environment (ACE) to Support the Long Term Integrity of Digital Archives.” In Proceedings of DigCCurr2009: Digital Curation: Practice, Promise, and Prospects, edited by Helen R. Tibbo, Carolyn Hank, Christopher A. Lee, and Rachael Clemens, 164-169. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, School of Information and Library Science, 2009. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/proceedings-of-digccurr2009-digital-curation-practice-promise-and-prospects/4994819
W - Song, S. and JaJa, J. "ACE: A Novel Software Platform to Ensure the Integrity of Long Term Archives". In Proceedings of Archiving 2007. 2007: IS&T, https://wiki.umiacs.umd.edu/adapt/images/5/51/Rad71E67.pdf
R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Chapter 3 (The Digital Logic Level): 135-230]
W - Underwood, William E. "The Presidential Electronic Records Pilot System: Results of Laboratory Experiments and Use by Archivists." Georgia Tech Research Institute, 2003. http://perpos.gtri.gatech.edu/perpos/publications/TR2003-01.pdf
W - Underwood, W.E. and S.L. Laib. “PERPOS: An Electronic Records Repository and Archival Processing System.” Paper presented at DigCCurr2007: An International Symposium on Digital Curation, Chapel Hill, NC, April 18-20, 2007. http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr2007/papers/underwood_paper_6-3.pdf [See also conference presentation: http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr2007/slides/underwood_slides_6-3.pdf]
Woods, Kam, and Geoffrey Brown. "From Imaging to Access - Effective Preservation of Legacy Removable Media." In Archiving 2009: Preservation Strategies and Imaging Technologies for Cultural Heritage Institutions and Memory Organizations: Final Program and Proceedings, 213-18. Springfield, VA: Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009. [For discussion of ingesting and verifying CD-ROM disk images.]
Wright, Craig, Dave Kleiman, and Shyaam Sundhar. "Overwriting Hard Drive Data: The Great Wiping Controversy." In Information Systems Security: 4th International Conference, ICISS 2008, Hyderabad, India, December 16-20, 2008: Proceedings, edited by R. Sekar and A.K. Pujari, 243–57. Berlin: Springer, 2008.
W - Becker, Christoph, Andreas Rauber, Volker Heydegger, Jan Schnasse, and Manfred Thaller. "Systematic Characterisation of Objects in Digital Preservation: The Extensible Characterisation Languages." Journal of Universal Computer Science 14, no. 18 (2008): 2936-52. http://www.jucs.org/jucs_14_18/systematic_characterisation_of_objects
C - Born, Günter. The File Formats Handbook. London: International Thomson Computer Press, 1995. [Excerpts in Blackboard]
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