"Remember that emphasis has shifted from one where students simply parrot back facts to one where they are encouraged to gather and use information to construct meaning.
For many learners and educators this is a very new approach and initially everyone may struggle with the process.
It is easy to slip back into the "provide information" then "test knowledge" mode.
That passive mode requires much less energy or engagement on the part of students, so some may be resistant to the change.
One important key to success is providing students with options so they feel they have choices.
Technology is the other important element because students are often highly motivated by electronic tools and resources.
-- Marjorie L. Pappas, Teaching electronic Information Skills. Follett, 1998.

Kuhlthau --

Information Seeking


"The Big Six"


Research Process


Pathways to Knowledge


S.P.I.R.R.E. Research




1. Appreciation


1. Initiation

2. Selection of General Topic

1. Task definition

1.1 Define the problem

1.2 Identify information requirements

1. Choose a broad topic

2 Presearch --

Develop an over-view; explore relationships. Narrow focus

1. Select and define a task

2. Predict strategies for information gathering

3. Exploration

2. Information seeking strategies

2.1 Determine range of source

2.2 Prioritize sources

2. Get an overview of the topic

2. Search --

Identify info. Pro-viders; select info resources and tools; seek relevant info.

3. Information gathering

4. Formulation of focus


3. Narrow the topic

4. Develop thesis/ purpose statement

3. Interpretation

Assess usefulness of info; reflect to develop personal meaning

Interpret info. - critical thinking.

4. Record selected information

5. Collection --gathering info on focused topic

3. Location and access

3.1 Locate sources

3.2 Find info.

5. Formulate questions to guide research

6. Plan for research and production


5. Restructure the information for the task


4. Information use

4.1 Engage (read, view, etc.)

4.2 Extract info

7. Find, analyze, evaluate sources

8. Evaluate evidence; take notes, compile bib.


6. Evaluate and showcase

6. Presentation

5. Synthesis

5.1 Organize

5.2 Present

9. Est. conclusions -- Organize info in outline

10. Create and present final product

4. Communication Organize, apply and present new knowledge in format of choice.


7. Assessment of outcome/ process

6. Evaluation

6.1 Judge the product

6.2 Judge the process

[Reflection point -- Is the paper/project satisfactory?]

7. Evaluation -- Thinking about process and product thruout process.

Continuous eval. and revision.